Hijabs and employment in the CJEU: WABE and MH Müller Handel

In WABE and MH Müller Handel [2021] EUECJ C-804/18 and C-341/19, two cases involving employers who banned their employees from wearing religious symbols at work, preliminary rulings were sought by the Hamburg Labour Court [Arbeitsgericht Hamburg] and the Federal Labour Court [Bundesarbeitsgericht] on the interpretation of Article 2(1) and (2)(a) and (b), Article 4(1) and Article 8(1) of Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 (the Equal Treatment Directive) and Articles 10 and 16 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU.

The background

In Case C804/18, IX, who was employed by WABE eV as a special needs carer, decided to wear a hijab at her workplace. Continue reading